Main Article Content
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that evolved within the past few decades and played a substantial role in the environment, industry, agriculture, and pharmacology. Nanoparticles are generally classified based on their dimensionality, morphology, composition, uniformity, and agglomeration. The shape, and morphology of nanoparticles play an essential role in their functionality and toxic effect on the environment and humans. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis of nanoparticles from microbes. For the biological synthesis of nanoparticles, microbes have been exploited all over the globe. Microbes like bacteria, fungi, and yeasts are mostly preferred for nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis because of their fast growth rate, easy cultivation, and their ability to grow at ambient conditions of temperature, pH, and pressure. Applications of Nanoparticles is a field of research with tremendous prospects for the improvement of the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. Microbial nanoparticles are found to have vigorous antibacterial activities. The nanoparticles' efficiency is probably due to their larger surface area for enhanced interaction with the micro-organisms. Nanoparticles adhere to the cell membrane and further penetrate inside by interacting with DNA, thereby interfering with the replication process or may attack the respiratory chain of pathogens. A similar bactericidal mechanism of silver nanoparticles obtained from endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus was observed against pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Alanazi, F.K.; Radwan, A. and Alsarra, I. A (2010).“Biopharmaceutical applications of nanogold,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 18, no. 4, pp.179–193.
- Benzerara, K.; Miot, J.; Morin, G.; Ona Nguema, G.; Skouri-Panet, F. And Férard, C. (2010).“Significance, mechanisms and environmental implications of microbial biomineralization,” Comptes Rendus Geoscience, vol. 343, no. 2-3, pp. 160–167.
- Chan, W.C.W, and Nie, S.S.(2016). Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science, vol. 281, no. 5385, pp. 2016– 2018.
- Cui, D.; Tian, F.; Coyer, S. R. et al.(2007). Effects of antisense-my conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes on HL-60 cells. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 4-5, pp. 1639–1646.
- Daniel, M. C, and Astruc, D.(2004). “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 293–346.
- Durán, N.; Marcato, P. D.; De Souza, G. I. H .; Alves, O. L, and Esposito, E. (2007). Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles produced by fungal process on textile fabrics and their effluent treatment,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 203–208.
- Fadeel, B., and Garcia-Bennett, A. E.( 2010). “Better safe than sorry: understanding the toxicological properties of inorganic nanoparticles manufactured for biomedical applications,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 362–374.
- Fayaz, A.M.; Balaji, K.; Girilal, M.; Yadav, R.; Kalaichelvan, P.T., and R.Venketesan, R.(2010).“Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. e103–e109.
- Hauck, T.S., Giri, S., Gao, Y., Chan, W.C.(2010). Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62, 438–448. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2009.11.015.
- Jain, N. Bhargava, A.; Majumdar, S.; Tarafdar, J. C and Panwar, J. (2011). Extracellular biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism perspective.Nanoscale, vol.3, no. 2, pp. 635–641.
- Kalishwaralal, K.; Banumathi, E.; Pandian S.R.K and et al.(2009). Silver nanoparticles inhibit VEGF induced cell proliferation and migration in bovine retinal endothelial cells. Colloids and Surfaces B, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 51–57.
- Kato, H. (2011). “In vitro assays: tracking nanoparticles inside cells,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 139–140.
- Klaus, T.; Joerger, R.; Olsson, E, and Granqvist, C.G.(2009). “Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 24, pp. 13611–13614.
- Liu, J.; Qiao, S.Z.; Hu, Q. H, and Lu, G.Q (2011). “Magnetic nanocomposites with mesoporous structures: synthesis and applications,” Small, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 425–443.
- Ma, J.; Wong, H.; Kong, L. B and Peng, K. W.(2003).Biomimetic processing of nanocrystallite bioactive apatite coating on titanium,” Nanotechnology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 619–623.
- Mann, S.(2001). Biomineralization: Principles and Concepts in Bioinorganic Materials Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
- Nies, D. H. (1999). Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 730–750, 1999.
- Panáček, A.; Kvítek L. .; Prucek, R. and et al.,(2006). “Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 33, pp. 16248–16253.
- Reith, F.; Lengke, M. F.; Falconer, D.; Craw, D. and Southam, G. (2007). The geomicrobiology of gold. The ISME Journal, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 567–584.
- Sneha, K.; Sathishkumar, M.; Mao, J.; Kwak, I. S. and Yun, Y. S. (2010). Corynebacterium glutamicum-mediated crystallization of silver ions through sorption and reduction processes, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 989–996.
- Tallury, P., Malhotra, A., Byrne, L.M., Santra, S.( 2010). Nanobioimaging and sensing of infectious diseases. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62, 424–437. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.addr.2009.11.014.
- Vaidyanathan R.; Kalishwaralal, K.; Gopalram, S and Gurunathan, S. (2009). Nanosilver—the burgeoning therapeutic molecule and its green synthesis. Biotechnology Advances, vol. 27, no. 6, pp.924–937.
- Zhang, X.; Yan, S.; Tyagi, R.D and Surampalli, R.Y.(2011). “Synthesis of nanoparticles by micro-organisms and their application in enhancing microbiological reaction rates,” Chemosphere, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 489–494.