Main Article Content


Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of undergoing pandemic. Molecular testing in the form of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered as the diagnostic standard for detecting COVID-19. However, there are still certain issues with its application. We sought this study is to  systematically review and summarize studies pertaining blood laboratory biomarkers for diagnosing COVID-19. Methods: The systematic review was conducted by following the PRISMA 2020 recommendations. We searched published articles in four databases (EbscoHost, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Scopus).that assessed the implementation of routine laboratory tests examination for diagnosing COVID-19 patients from March 2020 through September 2021. Results: Three studies were selected to be reviewed, with the number of participants ranging from 100 to 485 (total: 792). Peripheral blood count parameters were assessed in all studies. The monocyte-lymphocyte ratio had the highest accuracy. Several abnormalities of laboratory indicators such as white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, NLR, MLR, LDH, AST, ALT, and CRP were significantly different between COVID-19 positive patients to negative controls,. Conclusion: No single test could identify or distinguish COVID-19 from other pneumonia causes. However, laboratory biomarkers can be used as a complement to the COVID-19 diagnostic approach.


COVID-19, Leukocyte, Routine laboratory test, Polymerase Chain Reaction

Article Details

How to Cite
Pratama Umar, T. ., & Siburian, R. . (2022). Routine Laboratory Testing Role For Covid-19 Identification: A Systematic Review . Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, 3(3), 99–106.


  1. Sun P, Lu X, Xu C, Sun W, Pan B. Understanding of COVID ‐ 19 based on current evidence. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):548–51.
  2. Zhai P, Ding Y, Wu X, Long J, Zhong Y, Li Y. The Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of COVID-19. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(5):105955.
  3. Yuki K, Fujiogi M, Koutsogiannaki S. COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review. Clin Immunol. 2020;215:108427.
  4. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020;102433.
  5. Kannan S, Ali PSS, Sheeza A, Hemalatha K. COVID-19 ( Novel Coronavirus 2019 ) – recent trends. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;24(4):2006–11.
  6. Jiang F, Deng L, Zhang L, Cai Y, Cheung CW, Xia Z. Review of the Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ). J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(5):1545–9.
  7. Munne K, Bhanothu V, Bhor V, Patel V, Mahale SD, Pande S. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR test: factors influencing interpretation of results. Virusdisease. 2021;32(2):187–9.
  8. Kucirka LM, Lauer SA, Laeyendecker O, Boon D, Lessler J. Variation in false-negative rate of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction–based SARS-CoV-2 tests by time since exposure. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(4):262–7.
  9. Bahreini F, Najafi R, Amini R, Khazaei S, Bashirian S. Reducing false negative PCR test for COVID-19. Int J Matern Child Heal AIDS. 2020;9(3):408.
  10. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Buitrago-Garcia D, Simancas-Racines D, Zambrano-Achig P, Del Campo R, Ciapponi A, et al. False-negative results of initial RT-PCR assays for COVID-19: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0242958.
  11. Corman VM, Landt O, Kaiser M, Molenkamp R, Meijer A, Chu DK, et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(3):2000045.
  12. Guglielmi G. The explosion of new coronavirus tests that could help to end the pandemic. Nature. 2020;583(7817):506–10.
  13. Fei F, Smith JA, Cao L. Clinical laboratory characteristics in patients with suspected COVID ‐ 19 : One single ‐ institution experience. J Med Virol. 2020;95:1665–71.
  14. Fan BE, Chong VCL, Chan SSW, Lim GH LK, Tan GB et al. Hematologic parameters in patients with COVID-19 infection. Am J Hematol. 2020;95(6):131–4.
  15. Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021;372:n71.
  16. Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016;5(1):210.
  17. Whiting PF, Rutjes AWS, Westwood ME, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, et al. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(8):529–36.
  18. Ferrari D, Motta A, Strollo M, Banfi G, Locatelli M. Routine blood tests as a potential diagnostic tool for COVID-19. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020;58(7):1095–9.
  19. Tanni F, Akker E, Zaman MM, Figueroa N, Tharian B, Hupart KH. Eosinopenia and COVID-19. J Osteopath Med. 2020;120(8):504–8.
  20. Peng J, Qi D, Yuan G, Deng X, Mei Y, Feng L, et al. Diagnostic value of peripheral hematologic markers for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19): A multicenter, cross‐sectional study. J Clin Lab Anal. 2020;34(10):e23475.
  21. Pozdnyakova O, Nathan T. Connell, Elisabeth M. Battinelli, Connors JM, Fell G, Annette S. Kim. Clinical Significance of CBC and WBC Morphology in the Diagnosis and Clinical Course of COVID-19 Infection. Am J Clin Pathol. 2021;155(3):364–75.
  22. Mardani R, Vasmehjani AA, Zali F, Gholami A, Mousavi SD. Laboratory Parameters in Detection of COVID-19 Patients with Positive RT-PCR ; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e43.
  23. Suklan J, Cheaveau J, Hill S, Urwin SG, Green K, Winter A, et al. Utility of Routine Laboratory Biomarkers to Detect COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Viruses. 2021;13(5):803.
  24. Ali N. Elevated level of C-reactive protein may be an early marker to predict risk for severity of COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2020;92(11):2409–11.
  25. Beneš J, Džupová O, Poláková A, Sojková N. Repeatedly negative PCR results in patients with COVID-19 symptoms: Do they have SARS-CoV-2 infection or not? Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 2021;70(1):3–9.
  26. Lascarrou J-B, Colin G, Le Thuaut A, Serck N, Ohana M, Sauneuf B, et al. Predictors of negative first SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR despite final diagnosis of COVID-19 and association with outcome. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):2388.
  27. Stegeman, I.; Ochodo, E.A.; Guleid, F.; Holtman, G.A.; Yang, B.; Davenport, C.; Deeks, J.J.; Dinnes, J.; Dittrich, S.; Emperador D. Routine laboratory testing to determine if a patient has COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;CD013787.