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Thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder which is passed down through families in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. This disorder results in the destruction of red blood cell in large number, which leads to anemia. It is caused by mutation in the DNA of cells that make hemoglobin. Thalassemia should be prevented by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis which is helpful in decreasing prevalence and future incidence of thalassemia. The most important problem in thalassemia patients are iron overload, cardiac arrhythmia, hepatitis, osteoporosis and endocrine disorder however there are typical signs and symptoms of anemia. People with thalassemia can get treatment as indicated by the degree of seriousness of their condition. Blood transfusion is the common treatment for thalassemia. This review presents the types, diagnosis, prevalence, complications and treatment of thalassemia. Thalassemias are a major public health issue in many populations which many health authorities fail to address. These requirements are notrecognized by measures such as the Global Burden of Disease project, which ranks thalassemia very low in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and fails to consider that it ranks highly in the one to four-year-oldag egroup, making itanimportant contributor to under-5mortality. Thalassemia doesnot fulfil the criteria to be accepted as a target disease for neonatal screening. Nevertheless, dependingon the screening methodology, severe cases of thalassemia will be detected inmostneonatalscreening programs for sickle cell disease. This is very valuable because: (1) it helps to prepare the affected families for having asick childand (2) it is an important measure of secondary prevention.
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