Main Article Content
Background: The hypertensive disorders affect pregnant women and can create complications for the women in last trimester of pregnancy. To assess the impact of high hypertension, doppler scan is recommended in the third trimester.
Objective: Present explores values of PSV, EDV, S/D ratio, RI and PI among normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women during third trimester of pregnancy in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted at PIMS hospital Islamabad with objectives to evaluate doppler indices in fetal umbilical artery among hypertensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Data were collected from 1st February 2022 to 15th May 2022. A total of 93 pregnant women were recruited from already registered at maternal child health care center of PIMS and recommended for doppler indices scan. Toshiba Aplio 300 Ultrasound System was used for the assessment. Data about S/D ratio, RI and PI was analyzed by using IBM SPSS® software platform.
Results: Mean Age of pregnant women in our study conducted was 26.722 ± 4.133. Also the mean gestational week for pregnant women was 32.163 ± 2.35. Doppler indices were significantly raised in hypertensive women as compared to normotensive women. Doppler indices i.e. Pulsatility Index (Mean 1.049 ± 0.312 vs 1.360 ± 0.421), Resistivity Index (Mean 0.631 ± 0.114 vs 0.743 ± 0.01), Systolic/Diastolic flow (Mean 2.672 ± 0.512 vs 3.818 ± 0.986) were increased in third trimester of hypertensive women as compared to normotensive patients.
Conclusion: In this study, among doppler indices pulsatility index and resistivity index were identified as significant after applying null hypothesis test. Doppler ultrasound should be used to identify vascular resistance and evaluating degree of fetoplacental blood flow in hypertensive pregnant women.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Ahmed A, Alrashid Rahim HO, Elgyoum AA, Elzaki A. The correlation between placental thickness and fetal age among the pregnants in sudan. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 2014;2:395-398.
- Spurway J, Logan P, Pak S. The development, structure and blood flow within the umbilical cord with particular reference to the venous system. Australas J Ultrasound Med. 2012;15(3):97-102.
- Ramesh S, Hariprasath S, Anandan G, Solomon P, Vijayakumar V. Single umbilical artery. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences. 2015;7(April):S83-S84. doi:10.4103/0975-7406.155815
- Strong A, Gračner T, Chen P, Kapinos K. On the Value of the Umbilical Cord Blood Supply. Value in Health. 2018;21(9):1077-1082. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2018.03.003
- Vest AR, Cho LS. Hypertension in Pregnancy. Cardiology Clinics. 2012;30(3):407-423. doi:10.1016/j.ccl.2012.04.005
- Adekanmi AJ, Roberts A, Akinmoladun JA, Adeyinka AO. Uterine and umbilical artery doppler in women with pre-eclampsia and their pregnancy outcomes. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2019;26(2):106-112. doi:10.4103/npmj.npmj_161_18
- Okunade K. January-March 2018 An Official Publication of The National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. 2018;(January):19-26. doi:10.4103/npmj.npmj
- Vogel JP, Vannevel V, Robbers G, et al. Prevalence of abnormal umbilical arterial flow on Doppler ultrasound in low-risk and unselected pregnant women: a systematic review. Reproductive Health. 2021;18(1):1-8. doi:10.1186/s12978-021-01088-w
- Lopez-Mendez MA, Martinez-Gaytan V, Cortes-Flores R, et al. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia. BMC Research Notes. 2013;6(1). doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-477
- Acharya G, Wilsgaard T, Berntsen GKR, Maltau JM, Kiserud T. Reference ranges for serial measurements of umbilical artery Doppler indices in the second half of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(3):937-944. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2004.09.019
- Bacha R, Khadija S, Shams M. Umbilical Artery Doppler Waveform Indices at Term. Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2018;12:104-107.
- Stubert J, Peschel A, Bolz M, Glass A, Gerber B. Accuracy of immediate antepartum ultrasound estimated fetal weight and its impact on mode of delivery and outcome - a cohort analysis. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018;18(1):1-8. doi:10.1186/s12884-018-1772-7
- Bosselmann S, Mielke G. Sonographic Assessment of the Umbilical Cord. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2015;75(8):808-818. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1557819
- Wasim M. Comparison of Fetal Umbilical Artery Doppler Indices between Normal and Hypertensive Pregnant Women in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci 2015;. 2015;11(2):95-99.
- Gupta U, Qureshi A, Samal S. Pregnancy. 2008;11(2):1-6.
- Yousaf M, Khadija S, Bacha R, Shams MAA, Zain-Ul-Abidin S. Umbilical artery doppler waveform indices at term. Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018;12(2):104-107. doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1559
- Rana MJ, Amanullah A, Farooq O. The Role Of Umbilical Artery Doppler In Detection And Management Of Fetal Growth Retardation. 2005;21:10-13.